Step 4: Research Methods

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The objective of this module is to equip students with the research methods and techniques for implementing their team projects. Upon completion of the module, your students will be able to: choose the right methods for the specific research questions related to urban challenges; design an interdisciplinary research plan; communicate research results in a team; gain practical experience in using different research methods in an urban context; give feedback to peers; manage research projects; and analyse, synthetise, and critically evaluate information.

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Related resources


Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Data Collection methods

Qualitative and Quantitative Research 

Quantitative vs Qualitative approach: The differences Explained

The Data Analysis Process 

What is good research?

What is Interdisciplinary research? – an example

Reading Material:

  • A Really Simple Guide to Quantitative Data Analysis
  • A step-by-step guide to data collection
  • Analysis of quantitative data
  • Brewer, G.D. (1999). The challenges of interdisciplinarity. Policy Science, 32, 327–337.
  • Carra, G., Loucksb, D. P. , Blöschla, G. (2018). Gaining insight into interdisciplinary research and education programmes: A framework for evaluation. Research Policy, 47(1), 35–48.
  • Dey, I. (1993). Qualitative data analysis: A user-friendly guide for social scientists. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Knowlton, J. L., Halvorsen, K. E., Handler, R. M., and O’Rourke, M. (2014). Teaching Interdisciplinary Sustainability Science Teamwork Skills to Graduate Students Using In-Person and Web-Based Interactions. Sustainability, 6: 9428-9440.
  • Ladner, S. (2014). Practical ethnography: A guide to doing ethnography in the private sector. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press
  • Morse, W. C., M. Nielsen-Pincus, J. Force, and J. Wulfhorst. (2007). Bridges and barriers to developing and conducting interdisciplinary graduate-student team research. Ecology and Society, 12(2): 8.
  • Qualitative Data Analysis
  • Qualitative data analysis – simple introduction
  • Scheel, E.D. (2002). Using Active Learning Projects to Teach Research Skills Throughout the Sociology Curriculum. Sociological Practice, 4(2), 145–170.
  • Stakeholder engagement
  • Stokols, D. (2013). Training the next generation of transdisciplinarians. In: Enhancing Communication and Collaboration in Interdisciplinary Research. O’Rourke, M., Crowley, S., Eigenbrode, S.D., and Wulfhorst, J.D., Eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication. Pp. 56–81.
  • Szostak, R. (2007). How and why to teach interdisciplinary research practice. Journal of Research Practice, 3(2), Article M17.
  • The advantages of doing research in teams
  • Tobi, H. and Kampen, J.K. (2018). Research design: the methodology for interdisciplinary research framework. Quality & Quantity, 52(3): 1209-1225.
  • Types of scientific research
  • What constitutes good research?

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