Step 4: Conceptual and Practical Tools of Innovation

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The goal of the module is to equip the students with an understanding of the innovation process, necessity of multi-stakeholder engagement, and techniques and tools to design and implement innovation actions and co-creation activities. Upon the completion of this module, students will be able to: bridge between the stakeholders, academia urban authorities, organisations and citizen; grasp models and concepts that revolve around innovation; design and deliver co-creation activities; understand tools and techniques that support the innovation process within their team project.

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Related resources


Design thinking

Human-centred design

The open innovation model

The Quadruple Helix Model

Reading Material:

  • Buchenau, M. (2000) “Experience Prototyping” Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • Buchenau, M. and Suri, J. F. (2000). Experience Prototyping. Proceedings of DIS. New York: ACM, 424–433.
  • Carayannis, E.G. and Campbell, D.F.J. (2009). ‘Mode 3’ and ‘Quadruple Helix’: toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem. International Journal of Technology Management, 46 (3/4), 201–234.
  • Cefkin, M., ed. (2009). Ethnography and the Corporate Encounter: Reflections on Research in and of Corporations. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.
  • Chesbrough HW (2006) ‘Open Innovation: A New Paradigm for Understanding Industrial Innovation’. In Chesbrough HW, Vanhaverbeke W, West J (eds) Open innovation: researching a new paradigm. Oxford University Press.
  • Czarniawska, B. (2007). Shadowing: And Other Techniques for Doing Fieldwork in Modern Societies. Copenhagen: Liber. Copenhagen Business School Press.
  • Elizarova, O., Briselli, J., & Dowd, K. (2017). Participatory Design in Practice. Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • Gunn, W., Otto, T. and Smith, R. C., ed. (2013). Design Anthropology: Theory and Practice. London, New York, New Delhi, Sydney: Bloomsbury.
  • Hanington, B. M. (2010). Relevant and Rigorous: Human-Centered Research and Design Education. Design Issues, 26 (3): 18-26.
  • Interaction Design Foundation. (n.d.). What is User Shadowing? Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • Kylliäinen, J. (2020). Types of Innovation – The Ultimate Guide with Definitions and Examples. Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • Millen, D. R. Rapid Ethnography: Time Deepening Strategies for HCI Field Research. Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • Miller, K., McAdam, R., McAdam, M. A systematic literature review of university technology transfer from a quadruple helix perspective: toward a research agenda. R&D Management.
  • Putz, M. (2018). How the LEAD User Method has developed further. Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • Sanders, E. B. N. and Stappers, P. J. (2008). Co-creation and the new landscapes of design, CoDesign, 4(1), 5-18.
  • Schütz, F., Heidingsfelder, M., & Schraudner, M. (2019). Co-shaping the Future in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems: Uncovering Public Preferences toward Participatory Research and Innovation. Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • The Open University. (2016). Innovation through representation. Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • Think Design. (2020). Focus Groups in User Research. Retrieved November 06, 2020, from
  • Von Hippel, E. (1988). The Sources of Innovation. Oxford University Press.
  • Wasson, C. (2016). Design Anthropology. General Anthropology, 23(2):1-11.
  • Zapfl, D. (2018). What is a LEAD User? Retrieved November 06, 2020, from

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